Convection, conduction, and radiation are the basic ways of transferring heat from a package, component or device. Convection means thermal energy is transferred from a solid surface to a surrounding gas or fluid include the use of base plates and heat pipes. Conduction refers to the transfer of heat through a solid medium. Nystein offers the choice of thermal interface materials used to improve the component, device and substrate affect the ability of the system to conduct heat away. Thermal radiation is the electromagnetic radiation produced due to temperature. Although radiative heat transfer does occur, its impact is typically far less than convective or conductive means.